What are the Prevention and control measures of JE?
- The preventive measures are directed at reducing the vector density and in taking personal protection against mosquito bites using insecticide treated mosquito nets. The reduction in mosquito breeding requires eco-management, as the role of insecticides is limited.
- JE vaccine is produced in limited quantities at the Central Research Institute, Kasauli. Three doses of the vaccine provide immunity lasting a few years. The vaccine is procured directly by the state health authorities. Vaccination is not recommended as an outbreak control measure as it takes at least one month after second dose to develop antibodies at protective levels and the outbreaks are usually short lived.
There is no specific treatment of JE. Clinical management is supportive and in the acute phase is directed at maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and control of convulsions, if present. Maintenance of airway is crucial. The state governments have been advised that in the endemic districts, anticipatory preparations should be made for timely availability of medicines, equipment and accessories as well as sufficient number of trained medical, nursing and paramedical personnel. The Government of India supports training programmes.
Technical support is provided, on request by the state health authorities, for outbreak investigations and control. Factors that make the prevention and control of JE challenging are:
Piggeries may be kept away (4-5 kms) from human dwellings.
- Outdoor habit of the vector
- Scattered distribution of cases spread over relatively large areas
- Role of different reservoir hosts
- Specific vectors for different geographical and ecological areas
- Immune status of various population groups is not known making it difficult to delineate vulnerable population groups.